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Port and Terminal Management

Port and terminal managers have had to adapt fast to meet rising demand driven by the rapid expansion in world trade during the 21st century. Globalisation has put port models under growing pressure in increasingly competitive cargo markets. Better productivity - through expansion or more efficient use of existing assets - is crucial for economic survival.

Port and Terminal Management

The role of ports in international trade and transport and how ports can benefit or detract from the economics development of countries and their sea-borne trade.
The effect of globalisation on port choice and how changes in logistics and distribution patterns influence the development or decline of ports.
The geographic reasons for port location and the extent to which this may depend on the nature of their hinterland and natural resources
Different types of ports and access to ports (natural, man made, river, estuary) and the diversity of specialist port operations.
The enhanced role of ports in a through transport context – hub ports, feeder/transhipment ports, intermodal interfaces.
The different forms of the ownership structure of ports and of port services; public/private, landlord only, full or part service provider, terminal facilities within ports.

The fundamental differences between dry bulk cargo ships, general-purpose ships, liners (container, break-bulk and Ro-Ro) and tankers, including Ore/Oil and Ore/Bulk/Oil carriers. (Students may be expected to produce sketches).
The different categories of Tankers including carriers for crude-oil, petroleum products, chemicals, liquid gases, vegetable oils etc.
The purpose and basic design and construction features of decks, holds, hatches, derricks, winches cranes and other cargo handling gear.
Terminology of measuring ships including pseudo-tonnages – NT and GT. Actual tonnages – deadweight (dwat & dwcc) displacement (total and light). Capacities – bale cubic & grain cubic, TEU. Stowage Plans.
Ship types are required for the different cargoes and trade routes.
Basic characteristics of the main five commodities namely Coal, Ore, Grain, Fertilizers and Oil.
Hazards associated with the transport of certain commodities.
Special requirements of unitised liner cargoes.
The main places of origin and appropriate trade routes of other important cargoes plus any seasonal variations. Working knowledge of distances and voyage times.
A good grounding in maritime geography and access to an atlas is essential for this part of the syllabus.

The basic rationale of port business.
How ports are structured to meet the delivery of services and the relationship between infrastructure, conservancy, navigation and handling facilities.
How the activities are organised to interface with one another and typical port organisational structure.
How port performance can be measured – vessel turn round time, cargo volume, speed of cargo handling, damage and pilferage prevention.
Responsibility for and nature of marine operations – conservancy, dredging, navigation aids, navigation control etc.
Management of cargo operations on board and ashore. Understand the prime importance of avoiding traffic and cargo congestion.
The importance of safety management.
The importance of security to prevent terrorism, illegal immigration, theft and smuggling.
The role of trade unions and other labour organisations including ITF.
The role of statutory bodies – Customs, Immigration, Port Health, Marine Safety etc.
Understanding of the needs of port users – shipowners and operators, ship agents, forwarders, truckers, rail and barge operators.
Information flow requirements of the port, statutory bodies and port users.How these are met by port community computer systems.

The nature of port competition – national and international.
The need for market information – trade growth, vessel development, commercial needs, financial viability.
The relevance of geographic location to vessel transit time and port rotation.
The role of shipowners/ship operators, shippers/receivers, freight contractors, forwarders and other transport interests (eg railways, road hauliers).
Techniques of port promotion – identification of potential users.
The impact of inland transportation and inland depot/handling facilities.
The scope for collaboration on through transport.

The nature and types of port charges – statutory navigational, services to vessels, services to cargoes.
The cost factors in pricing – infrastructure, navigation services, equipment, staff and labour, marketing, security and safety, environmental.
Pricing policy – ‘not for profit’, government influenced, fully commercial.
Effects of competition on pricing policy.
Pricing as a tool to influence demand.
Factors used in establishing pricing structures – lengths of time included in base charge for vessels and cargo; units on which charges are based; simplicity of application and transparency; volume rebates.
Regulatory mechanisms; user appeals against charges.
The integration of port charges with charges of other port operator and inland transport organisations.
Through transport charges.

The nature of port constitutions and the legal framework of ownership.
Port laws and bye-laws, national legislation.
The development of port facilities; the financing of port development.
Law relating to port security, operators’ liability and insurance.
Laws and regulations relating to the employment of dockworkers.
The freedom of port organisations to diversify their activities.
Development, ownership and control of Free Ports and Free Zones.
The impact of international conventions on ports.

Port development policy – governmental role, regional needs, competition.
Planning principles and project planning – role of traffic forecasts, analysis of demand factors, implications for marketing, involvement of users.
Infrastructure/operating structure.
Joint ventures for financing or management, policies for common user and sole user terminals.
Capacity calculations, relationship between berth occupancy, service time and waiting time, berth throughput.
Port layout, physical constraints, terminal planning, specialised terminals, multipurpose terminals and support operations.
The requirements of commodities – break bulk, neo-bulk, special cargoes, dry bulk, liquid bulk etc.
Flow analysis of cargo in a terminal.
Environmental factors and constraints.

Financial management of ports – budgets, capital and revenue expenditures, investment appraisal.
Financial and commercial objectives, analysis and monitoring of costs, port cost accounting.
Corporate analysis of financial data, budgetary planning and control.
Project evaluation and review techniques, capital budgeting.
Financial and economics appraisal of port proposals and traffic forecasting.

Port buildings, transit sheds, warehouses, maintenance workshops, amenity buildings, offices for port users etc.
Cargo handling equipment, type cost and numbers, maintenance management.
Future changes in vessels and cargo handling.
The effect of vessel size.
Procurement and materials management.

Different types of ownership: national or local government owned and managed, other public sector-owned ports and port trusts.
The trend towards deregulation of ports.
Transfer from state to private ownership, methods of privatisation; sale of shares, management and employee buyouts.
Private sector owned ports; different types of ownership, outright, public sector ownership of port infrastructure combined
with private sector provision, public ownership of port superstructure with private management and/or operation.
Lease contracts; joint ventures.

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