Container ships have largely taken over the tasks of carrying goods to market internationally. In previous decades, these trades had been undertaken by numerous small tweendeckers. Large container ships have satisfied the promoters of economies of scale.
Liner Trades covers the types of vessels operating liner services and their trade routes, and provides a comprehensive description of modern container ship operations and management. Co-operative ventures and consortia within the various service networks are detailed as are the financial and legal aspects of the trades and various types of documentation involved.
DEFINITIONS OF LINER TRADES
The characteristics of liner services. The Liner Trades of the world, trade routes and ports. East/west and north/south trades.
Service options including round the world (RTW), pendulum, hub and spoke.
Vessel types – break-bulk, Con-bulk, Ro-Ro, LASH, Reefer and other specialist ships. Container ships including cellular/non cellular, post panamax, hatchless, ‘fast ships’, etc.
Terminology of measurements including dimensions, tonnages, cubic capacities, TEUs.
Cargo handling equipment on board. Hatches & hold layouts, ro-ro access and other specialised configurations.
PORT TERMINALS AND CARGO HANDLING
Commodities – break bulk, palletised and containerised. Heavy lifts, Out of gauge, IMO Dangerous cargo regulations.
Port & terminal operations and systems: terminal layout, cargo handling systems and equipment.
Other port facilities and value added services.
LINER SHIPPING OPPERATIONS
Liner Operating Companies: Structure, management, technical, operations,
Liner Marketing and sales: in-house or independent agency, FONASBA Liner agency agreements, hinterland sales & agency, sub agents.
Ship husbandry and port agency.
Shippers, forwarders and NVOs. Logistics operators. e-commerce.
CONTAINERISATION, INTERMODAL TRANSPORT & LOGISTICS
The concept of unitisation and intermodalism.
Container types and terminology.
Non-port depots. Inland haulage; Carrier/Merchant haulage, Feeder services.
Container management, owning/leasing, repairs and interchange.
LINER INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
Economic trends – balancing supply and demand, capacity management options.
Conferences, consortia and alliances: Concepts of the contemporary conference system. Control and regulation including Federal Maritime Commission (USA), Competition Directorate (Europe).
Economies of scale, mergers and market share.
BILLS OF LADING AND OTHER DOCUMENTS
The paramount importance of bills of lading in the Liner Trades.
The functions of bills of lading and their role in international trade.
Bill of lading legislation – UK Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 or equivalent national legislation.
Hague/Hague Visby & Hamburg rules. Rules for combined transport including UNCTAD/ ICC.
Clean and ‘dirty’ Bills of Lading. Letters of indemnity, their use, misuse and the avoidance of fraud.
Types of Bills of Lading: ocean, through, combined transport, waybills. Major and usual clauses.
Other documentation – Booking notes, Shipping notes, Manifests, Dangerous cargo declarations.
Regulatory control of imports and exports including customs procedures and licensing.
Computers: Application in liner trades and development of paperless trading.
TARIFF CONSTRUCTION, PRICING AND AGREEMENTS
Freight rates and Tariff structures including commodity, weight or volume;
advantages and drawbacks.
Adjustment factors including currency fluctuation, bunker charges, war risks and congestion.
Container tariffs – their structure and relevance.
Pricing management including maximising contribution, revenue or market share, marginal pricing of vacant capacity.
FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF IMPORT AND EXPORT
Sale of Goods and INCOTERMS.
Methods of payment and their impact on shipping documents. ICC Uniform Custom and Practice.
LEGAL ASPECTS OF LINER TRADES
Carriers limitation of liability, Carriers and Merchants responsibilities.
Cargo claims, role and responsibilities of the parties. Noting Protest.
Insurance arrangements: hull & machinery insurance, P & I Associations.
General Average concept and documentation.
Liabilities of the Agent: Agent’s authority including binding the Principal, fiduciary duty, breach of warranty of authority.